Biofuels offer a potential alternative for India to mitigate high dependence on oil imports. The country recently advanced its target of 20% ethanol blending in petrol by five years to 2025. With its large biomass resource base, bioenergy is an attractive means to increase energy security and sustainability. How large a contribution will biofuels make in India’s energy security and emission reduction efforts? How can India ensure ample feedstock availability and plant capacities for sustainable and commercial production of biofuels? How are advanced technologies, carbon intensity improvements, and policy support affecting the next generation of biofuels? Which global best practices should India implement to meet national biofuel mandates?